Tous les articles par Jeanne Pourias

Reshaping Spaces and Relations: Urban Gardening in a Time of Crisis (Cangelosi)

This article studies urban gardening as a form of social resilience. It analyses its role and impact on society in a context of social and financial crisis through the lens of the debate about the commons on the basis of three case studies conducted in Brussels in 2013. The study connects the specificities of the current social and economic context with the new wave of urban gardening from a people-centred perspective.

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Sowing Resilience and Contestation in Times of Crises: The Case of Urban Gardening Movements in Barcelona (Camps-Calvet et al.)

Urban gardens have been observed to multiply in response to crises. However, the meaning and motivations behind the emergence of gardening movements varies greatly over space and time. In this paper authors argue that bottom up urban gardening initiatives taking place in Southern European countries in form of land occupation and communalization represent forms of resistance that enhance social cohesion and collective action in times of need.

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Recycling urban waste as possible use for rooftop vegetable garden (Grard et al 2015)

In 2012, a pilot experiment was run in Paris (France). Simple and cheap systems of rooftop gardening were tested on a rooftop using as crop substrates only local urban organic waste so as to contribute to the urban metabolism. Production levels and heavy metal contents in cropping substrates and edible vegetables were measured. Available results show (i) high levels of crop production with limited inputs compared to land professional gardening, (ii) low levels of heavy metal pollutants in the edible parts of the crops, especially for Cd and Pb with respect to EU norms for vegetables and (iii) positive inflence on yields on organizing the substrate in layers and enhancing the biological activity through earthworm inoculation.

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Zero-Acreage Farming in the City of Berlin: An Aggregated Stakeholder Perspective on Potential Benefits and Challenges (Specht et al. 2015)

How can buildings be combined with agricultural production and what are the major potential benefits and challenges for the introduction of zero-acreage farming (ZFarming) in Berlin from the relevant stakeholders’ perspectives? These questions were explored through a series of interviews and stakeholder workshops held between 2011 and 2013.

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How does your garden grow? An empirical evaluation of the costs and potential of urban gardening (CoDyre et al. 2014)

Interesting conclusions from this Canadian studies: "(1) there is impressive potential when only the most productive [gardens] are considered as an illustration of what could be produced; (2) as it is currently practiced, only a fraction of potential production is happening; and (3) for urban self-provisioning to meet its potential, a major increase in the area gardened."

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L’expérience agricole des citadins dans les jardins collectifs urbains : le cas de Montpellier (P. Scheromm)

Les jardins collectifs se multiplient aujourd’hui dans les villes occidentales. À Montpellier, leur essor est lié à la demande des citadins et soutenu par la municipalité. Quarante entretiens semi-directifs ont permis d’identifier les motivations des jardiniers, leurs pratiques agronomiques et leur conception du jardinage et de l’agriculture. Dans ces jardins collectifs, lieux aux fonctions plurielles, une reconnexion des citadins avec l’agriculture s’opère, même si l’objectif de production alimentaire n’y est pas affiché comme une priorité. Cette nature urbaine multi-facettes, promue par les citadins et qui intéresse les politiques urbaines, ne porte-t-elle pas en germe l’amorce d’une nouvelle relation entre ville et agriculture ?

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L’expérience agricole des citadins dans les jardins collectifs urbains : le cas de Montpellier (P. Scheromm)

Les jardins collectifs se multiplient aujourd’hui dans les villes occidentales. À Montpellier, leur essor est lié à la demande des citadins et soutenu par la municipalité. Quarante entretiens semi-directifs ont permis d’identifier les motivations des jardiniers, leurs pratiques agronomiques et leur conception du jardinage et de l’agriculture. Dans ces jardins collectifs, lieux aux fonctions plurielles, une reconnexion des citadins avec l’agriculture s’opère, même si l’objectif de production alimentaire n’y est pas affiché comme une priorité. Cette nature urbaine multi-facettes, promue par les citadins et qui intéresse les politiques urbaines, ne porte-t-elle pas en germe l’amorce d’une nouvelle relation entre ville et agriculture ?

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Urban agriculture: long-term strategy or impossible dream? (T. Angotti)

Proponents of urban agriculture have identified its potential to improve health and the environment but in New York City and other densely developed and populated urban areas, it faces huge challenges because of the shortage of space, cost of land, and the lack of contemporary local food production. However, large portions of the city and metropolitan region do have open land and a history of agricultural production in the not-too-distant past. Local food movements and concerns about food security have sparked a growing interest in urban farming. Policies in other sectors to address diet-related illnesses, environmental quality and climate change may also provide opportunities to expand urban farming. Nevertheless, for any major advances in urban agriculture, significant changes in local and regional land use policies are needed. These do not appear to be forthcoming any time soon unless food movements amplify their voices in local and national food policy. Based on his experiences as founder of a small farm in Brooklyn, New York and his engagement with local food movements, the author analyzes obstacles and opportunities for expanding urban agriculture in New York.

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Agriculture urbaine et enjeux de santé

L'agriculture urbaine a le vent en poupe, souvent au nom d'une participation au reverdissement de la ville, de la recréation de liens, entre les urbains et la production agricole et alimentaire, voire entre les urbains eux-mêmes. Mais l'agriculture urbaine comporte, aussi des enjeux de santé importants, qui plaident pour un aménagement urbain favorisant le maintien ou l'installation de cette agriculture dans des conditions environnementales saines.

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Revue POUR: N° spécial Agricultures Urbaines

Après la reconnaissance lente et inachevée des agricultures périurbaines depuis les années 1990, c’est au tour des agricultures urbaines de se trouver sous le feu des projecteurs des chercheurs (géographes, agronomes, architectes paysagistes, économistes, sociologues, etc.) et aujourd’hui des médias, sans oublier les attentes des collectivités locales et les initiatives privées, émanant souvent d’acteurs non issus du monde agricole (entrepreneurs, associations, établissements publics). Le terme « agriculture urbaine » inclut dans ce dossier les pratiques agricoles d’urbains à proximité de la ville ainsi que les exploitations professionnelles et/ou associatives situées aux lisières immédiates du front urbain.

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Is food a motivation for urban gardeners? Multifunctionality and the relative importance of the food function in urban collective gardens of Paris and Montreal

In the cities of industrialized countries, the sudden keen interest in urban agriculture has resulted, inter alia, in the growth of the number and diversity of urban collective gardens. While the multifunctionality of collective gardens is well known, individual gardeners’ motivations have still not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this article is to explore the role, for the gardeners, of the food function as one of the functions of gardens, and to establish whether and how this function is a motivating factor for them.

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Can rooftop gardens grow city’s vegetables?

Rooftop gardens in cities could provide more than three quarters of the vegetables consumed in them, a case study from Bologna, Italy, suggests. If all suitable flat roof space was used for urban agriculture, rooftop gardens in the city could supply around 12 500 tons of vegetables a year whilst also providing a range of ecosystem services, the researchers say.

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