Archives du mot-clé urbanite_radar

The Intersection of Planning, Urban Agriculture, and Food Justice: A Review of the Literature: Journal of the American Planning Association: Vol 83, No 3

"We draw on a multidisciplinary body of research to consider how planning for urban agriculture can foster food justice by benefitting socioeconomically disadvantaged residents. The potential social benefits of urban agriculture include increased access to food, positive health impacts, skill building, community development, and connections to broader social change efforts. The literature suggests, however, caution in automatically conflating urban agriculture’s social benefits with the goals of food justice. Urban agriculture may reinforce and deepen societal inequities by benefitting better resourced organizations and the propertied class and contributing to the displacement of lower-income households. The precariousness of land access for urban agriculture is another limitation, particularly for disadvantaged communities. Planners have recently begun to pay increased attention to urban agriculture but should more explicitly support the goals of food justice in their urban agriculture policies and programs."

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9e édition de l’École d’été sur l’agriculture urbaine de Montréal (Québec, Canada)

École d’été sur l’agriculture urbaine de Montréal : 9 années de formation, de réseautage, et d'intervention. Plus de 1600 participantes et participants qui maintenant font la ville nourricière de demain. Pour une 9e édition, du 14 au 18 août 2017, se tiendra à l'Université du Québec à Montréal, l’École d’été sur l’agriculture urbaine du Laboratoire d'agriculture urbaine (AU/LAB) organisée avec la collaboration de l’Institut des sciences de l’environnement de l’UQÀM (ISE). Un rendez-vous devenu incontournable aussi bien au Québec qu’à l’international qui attire chaque année plus de 200 participant(e)s dans un heureux mélange de complicité, d’échanges, de connaissances et d’appel à l’action. Rassemblant des citoyen(ne)s, des chercheur(e)s, des étudiant(e)s, des entrepreneur(e)s, des acteur(trice)s de l’agriculture urbaine et des professionnel(le)s de divers horizons, cette école d’été a pour vocation de susciter des débats, des rencontres et un partage d’expériences. Cette année, nous explorerons le rôle de l'agriculture urbaine comme outil de réappropriation de la ville et plus particulièrement sur les questions d’espace et d’alimentation. Force est de constater qu’au cours des dernières décennies, les processus d’urbanisation ont éloigné l’urbain de son territoire et de son alimentation, les deux étant intimement liés. L’urbain a donc, dans bien des cas, aucun accès à la terre se limitant ainsi à l’offre commerciale présente à proximité de sa résidence pour s’alimenter. Comment redonner cet accès à la « terre »? Comment redonner le pouvoir aux urbains de se nourrir par eux-mêmes? L’agriculture urbaine apparait depuis quelques années comme un outil pertinent de réappropriation individuelle et collective du territoire et de l’alimentation allant même jusqu’à la création d’entreprise dans le domaine. Mais comment les jardinier(e)s urbain(e)s s’y prennent-ils? Est-ce que cette « appropriation » de l’espace à des fins agricoles rentre en conflit avec d’autres usages? Comment des groupes utilisent-ils l'agriculture urbaine pour des actions tactiques de rénovation urbaine ? Quelle place pour l’agriculture en ville considérant les autres fonctions de la ville, dont l’habitation et la culture? Comment créer une mixité de ces usages? Cette année encore, la formation s’organisera autour d’un apprentissage théorique et pratique qui s’appuiera sur l’intervention de spécialistes autour de tables rondes, de retour d’expérience, d’ateliers pratiques et de visites sur le terrain. Une place importante sera aussi accordée aux échanges et discussions, ainsi qu’aux interactions entre les intervenant(e)s et les participant(e)s. Nous espérons que vous trouverez durant cette 9e École d'été des connaissances et de l’inspiration pour poursuivre ou initier des projets en agriculture urbaine, chez vous, à votre travail, dans les écoles, dans votre quartier ou qui sait, démarrer votre propre entreprise agricole urbaine! 1 FORMATION, 3 VOLETS Pour cette 9e édition, l'équipe de l'école d'été offre 3 volets de formation. Le choix d’un volet permettra de diviser le groupe pour les journées du mardi, mercredi et jeudi; les journées du lundi et vendredi étant en tronc commun général.

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Agricultures urbaines durables : vecteur pour la transition écologique

Le colloque international « Agricultures urbaines durables » propose six sessions scientifiques, chacune avec des sous-sessions et des tables rondes avec les différents acteurs (agriculteurs, chercheurs, élus, étudiants, associations, consultants). Le colloque vise une valorisation scientifique et pédagogique multi-supports.

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Zero-Acreage Farming in the City of Berlin: An Aggregated Stakeholder Perspective on Potential Benefits and Challenges

How can buildings be combined with agricultural production and what are the major potential benefits and challenges for the introduction of zero-acreage farming (ZFarming) in Berlin from the relevant stakeholders’ perspectives? These questions were explored through a series of interviews and stakeholder workshops held between 2011 and 2013. The aim was to identify the most suitable building-integrated farming model for the Berlin metropolitan area and to develop guidelines for the model’s successful and sustainable implementation through a stakeholder-driven approach. This paper provides an aggregated synthesis of the outcomes derived from the qualitative interviews and stakeholder workshops. As the results reveal, the stakeholders perceive potential benefits and challenges related to the issue of ZFarming in all dimensions (economic, social, environmental and political). They largely agreed on the importance of focusing on local resources, using energy-efficient production—including social and educational aspects—and developing new market structures when introducing ZFarming to the city of Berlin. The stakeholders identified urban rooftop greenhouses (RTG) as the most promising farming model for Berlin. In a joint collaboration of all stakeholders, a manual for RTG was developed within the participatory innovation process that addresses the identified problems and challenges associated with future implementation and governance of RTG in Berlin and beyond.

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Self-provisioning, Sustainability and Environmental Consciousness in Brno Allotment Gardens

This paper seeks to contribute to the topic of alternative food production, which has attracted the attention of both scholars and practitioners in the last years, together with the increasingly stronger critique of the current food system. In the past, allotment gardens played an important role in cities’ food self-sufficiency, however they are often omitted from the current food production debate. In the Czech Republic, as well as other Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries...

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Restoring Urban Fringe Landscapes through Urban Agriculture: The Japanese Experience

This paper advocates the re-establishment of garden zones both in and around cities. Mixed land-use garden zones are conceptualized as spaces where urban residents can craft their own local food cultures and agro-biographies in response to the globalization of agriculture and food consumption. The case for creating garden zones is made by first outlining the legacy of post-war growth and planning policies, which attempted to clearly demarcate the line between urban and agricultural use. And, second, investigating the current demographic shifts which threaten the existence of domestic agricultural production and necessitate a new pro-urban agriculture planning paradigm. To develop this new planning paradigm, the third section looks back at the city of Edo to identify the urban agricultural heritage of what is now the modern-day megalopolis of Tokyo. The fourth section demonstrates the need for multifunctional green spaces by presenting a number of examples of agro-activities in both urban and suburban areas of the greater Tokyo area. The final section concludes the paper with a discussion of the need for a new type of garden zone: a hybrid zone where the mixing of urban and agricultural uses is encouraged. (2010). Restoring Urban Fringe Landscapes through Urban Agriculture: The Japanese Experience. disP - The Planning Review: Vol. 46, Metropolitan Peripheries, pp. 51-59. doi: 10.1080/02513625.2010.10557086

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A REVIEW OF THE BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS OF URBAN AGRICULTURE

Urban agriculture has become a popular topic for metropolitan areas to engage in on a program and policy level. It is touted as a means of promoting public health and economic development, building social capital, and repurposing unused land. Food policy councils and other groups that seek to position urban agriculture to policy makers often struggle with how to frame the benefits of and potential problems with urban agriculture. In some cases, the enthusiasm is ahead of the evidence. This review provides an overview of the documented sociocultural, health, environmental, and economic development outcomes of urban agriculture. Demonstrated and potential benefits, as well as risks and limitations, of this growing field will be discussed. We also offer recommendations for further research to strengthen the scholarship on urban agriculture.

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Resolving differing stakeholder perceptions of urban rooftop farming in Mediterranean cities: promoting food production as a driver for innovative forms of urban agriculture

Abstract Urban agriculture (UA) is spreading within the Global North, largely for food production, ranging from household individual gardens to community gardens that boost neighborhood regeneration. Additionally, UA is also being integrated into buildings, such as urban rooftop farming (URF). Some URF experiences succeed in North America both as private and community initiatives. To date, little attention has been paid to how stakeholders perceive UA and URF in the Mediterranean or to the role of food production in these initiatives. This study examines the promotion and inclusion of new forms of UA through the practice of URF and contributes to the nascent literature on the stakeholder and public perceptions of UA. It seeks to understand how those perceptions shape the development of new urban agriculture practices and projects. Barcelona (Spain) was used as a Mediterranean case study where UA and URF projects are growing in popularity. Through semistructured interviews with 25 core stakeholders, we show that UA is largely perceived as a social activity rather than a food production initiative, because the planning of urban gardens in Barcelona was traditionally done to achieve leisure and other social goals. However, several stakeholders highlighted the potential to increase urban fertility through URF by occupying currently unused spaces. As a result, the positive valuation of URF depends on the conceptualization of UA as a social or food production activity. In turn, such conceptualization shapes barriers and opportunities for the development of URF. While most UA-related stakeholders (e.g., food co-ops, NGOs) preferred soil-based UA, newer stakeholders (e.g., architects) highlighted the economic, social and environmental opportunities of local and efficient food production through innovative URF.

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Resolving differing stakeholder perceptions of urban rooftop farming in Mediterranean cities: promoting food production as a driver for innovative forms of urban agriculture

Abstract Urban agriculture (UA) is spreading within the Global North, largely for food production, ranging from household individual gardens to community gardens that boost neighborhood regeneration. Additionally, UA is also being integrated into buildings, such as urban rooftop farming (URF). Some URF experiences succeed in North America both as private and community initiatives. To date, little attention has been paid to how stakeholders perceive UA and URF in the Mediterranean or to the role of food production in these initiatives. This study examines the promotion and inclusion of new forms of UA through the practice of URF and contributes to the nascent literature on the stakeholder and public perceptions of UA. It seeks to understand how those perceptions shape the development of new urban agriculture practices and projects. Barcelona (Spain) was used as a Mediterranean case study where UA and URF projects are growing in popularity. Through semistructured interviews with 25 core stakeholders, we show that UA is largely perceived as a social activity rather than a food production initiative, because the planning of urban gardens in Barcelona was traditionally done to achieve leisure and other social goals. However, several stakeholders highlighted the potential to increase urban fertility through URF by occupying currently unused spaces. As a result, the positive valuation of URF depends on the conceptualization of UA as a social or food production activity. In turn, such conceptualization shapes barriers and opportunities for the development of URF. While most UA-related stakeholders (e.g., food co-ops, NGOs) preferred soil-based UA, newer stakeholders (e.g., architects) highlighted the economic, social and environmental opportunities of local and efficient food production through innovative URF.

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Urban agriculture and the prospects for deep democracy

The interest in and enthusiasm for urban agriculture (UA) in urban communities, the non-profit sector, and governmental institutions has grown exponentially over the past decade. Part of the appeal of UA is its potential to improve the civic health of a community, advancing what some call food democracy. Yet despite the increasing presence of the language of civic agriculture or food democracy, UA organizations and practitioners often still focus on practical, shorter-term projects in an effort both to increase local involvement and to attract funding from groups focused on quantifiable deliverables. As such, it seems difficult to move beyond the rhetoric of food democracy towards significant forms of popular participation and deliberation within particular communities. In this paper we provide a theoretical framework—deep democracy—that helps to contextualize nascent attempts at civic agriculture or food democracy within a broader struggle for democratic practices and relationships. We argue that urban agriculture efforts are well positioned to help citizens cultivate lasting relationships across lines of difference and amidst significant power differentials—relationships that could form the basis of a community’s collective capacity to shape its future. We analyze the theory of deep democracy through recent experiences with UA in Denver, Colorado, and we identify ways in which UA can extend its reach and impact by focusing more consciously on its political or civic potential.

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Urban agriculture and the prospects for deep democracy

The interest in and enthusiasm for urban agriculture (UA) in urban communities, the non-profit sector, and governmental institutions has grown exponentially over the past decade. Part of the appeal of UA is its potential to improve the civic health of a community, advancing what some call food democracy. Yet despite the increasing presence of the language of civic agriculture or food democracy, UA organizations and practitioners often still focus on practical, shorter-term projects in an effort both to increase local involvement and to attract funding from groups focused on quantifiable deliverables. As such, it seems difficult to move beyond the rhetoric of food democracy towards significant forms of popular participation and deliberation within particular communities. In this paper we provide a theoretical framework—deep democracy—that helps to contextualize nascent attempts at civic agriculture or food democracy within a broader struggle for democratic practices and relationships. We argue that urban agriculture efforts are well positioned to help citizens cultivate lasting relationships across lines of difference and amidst significant power differentials—relationships that could form the basis of a community’s collective capacity to shape its future. We analyze the theory of deep democracy through recent experiences with UA in Denver, Colorado, and we identify ways in which UA can extend its reach and impact by focusing more consciously on its political or civic potential.

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The boundaries of urban metabolism Towards a political–industrial ecology

This paper considers the limits and potential of ‘urban metabolism’ to conceptualize city processes. Three ‘ecologies’ of urban metabolism have emerged. Each privileges a particular dimension of urban space, shaped by epistemology, politics, and model-making. Marxist ecologies theorize it as hybridized socio-natures that (re)produce uneven outcomes; industrial ecology, as stocks and flows of materials and energy; and urban ecology, as complex socio-ecological systems. We map these scholarly islands through bibliometric analysis and literature review (1965-2012), unveiling how the metaphor has become stagnant. To reinvigorate this research we propose the development of political–industrial ecology, using urban metabolism as a boundary metaphor.

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École d’agriculture urbaine – du 10 au 14 août 2015

Pour une 7e édition, du 10 au 14 août 2014, se tiendra à l'Université du Québec à Montréal, l’École d’été sur l’agriculture urbaine du Laboratoire d'agriculture urbaine (AU/LAB) et du Collectif de recherche en aménagement paysager et agriculture urbaine durable (CRAPAUD). Cet événement, organisé avec la collaboration de l’Institut des sciences de l’environnement de l’UQÀM (ISE), réunit chaque année près de 200 participant(e)s issu(e)s de l'ensemble du Québec et de la Francophonie pour 5 jours de formation intensive s’articulant autour d’un apprentissage à la fois théorique et pratique. Rassemblant des citoyen(ne)s, des chercheur(e)s, des étudiant(e)s, des acteur(trice)s de l’agriculture urbaine et des professionnel(le)s de divers horizons, cette école d’été a pour vocation de susciter des débats, des rencontres et un partage d’expériences. Pour ce faire la programmation aborde autant l’urbanisme agricole, l’action citoyenne, les villes en santé, etc. Le tout dans une perspective d’élaboration d’un système alimentaire urbain viable, de justice alimentaire, sans oublier une volonté de réseautage et de co-création. Cette année encore, la formation s’organisera autour d’un apprentissage théorique et pratique qui s’appuiera sur l’intervention de spécialistes autour de tables rondes, de retours d’expérience, d’ateliers pratiques et de visites sur le terrain. En outre, dans chaque volet les participants et participantes seront amenés à concevoir des aménagements de jardins soit résidentiels ou institutionnels, des aménagements de quartiers nourriciers ou de fermes urbaines. Des projets qui incluront la production maraîchère, mais aussi la production de miel, de champignons, ou l'élevage de petits animaux dans une vision de production alimentaire, mais aussi de verdissement de la ville, de gestion écologique des parcs, etc.. Une place importante sera aussi accordée aux échanges et discussions, ainsi qu’aux interactions entrent les intervenant(e)s et les participant(e)s. Nous espérons que vous trouverez durant cette 7e École d'été des connaissances et de l’inspiration pour poursuivre ou initier des projets en agriculture urbaine, chez vous, à votre travail, dans les écoles, dans votre quartier!

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