This paper shows that food education, which impacts product diversification (local and bulk products) and supply diversification (market gardeners), appears to be more important to foster the purchase and consumption of fruits and vegetables in food deserts.
Carrefour a inauguré jeudi dernier un potager sur le toit de son hypermarché de Villiers-en-Bière en Seine-et-Marne, le plus grand de France en superficie. Sur une surface de 1200 mètres carrés, des plantes aromatiques, des fruits rouges, des kiwis, des épinards, des tomates ou encore des salades y sont cultivés dans des bacs hors-sol. Une fois récoltés à maturité, ils seront vendus au client dans les rayons de l'hypermarché. Les premières ventes devraient s'effectuer début mai, selon l'enseigne. «Ce potager s'inscrit dans la politique de RSE (Responsabilité Sociale et Environnementale, ndlr) de l'entreprise, et des filières qualité du groupe Carrefour. Aujourd'hui, le client attend des produits de qualité, d'une grande fraîcheur, avec du goût et en circuit ultra-court», indique au Figaro Éric Sauvage, secrétaire général de Carrefour France.
We are living in an age of concern for mental health and wellbeing. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to investigate the perceived health, social value and happiness benefits of urban agriculture (UA) by focusing on home and community food gardens in South Australia. The results reported in this paper are from “Edible Gardens”, a citizen science project designed to investigate the social value, productivity and resource efficiency of UA in South Australia. Methods include an online survey and in-field garden data collection. Key findings include: dominant home gardener motivations were the produce, enjoyment, and health, while dominant community gardener motivations were enjoyment, connection to others and the produce. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four key factors: Tranquillity and Timeout, Develop and Learn Skills, the Produce, and Social Connection. The key difference between home and community gardeners was an overall social connection. Although home gardeners did not appear to actively value or desire inter-household social connection, this does not mean they do not value or participate in other avenues of social connection, such as via social learning sources or by sharing food with others. The combined results from this research regarding health and wellbeing, social connection and happiness support the premise that engagement in home or community food gardening may provide a preventative or supportive role for gardener health and wellbeing, regardless of whether it is a conscious motivation for participation.
Urban Agriculture (UA) is practiced around the globe (Biel, 2016), supported and advocated by a diversity of actors ranging from local neighbourhood groups to supra-national bodies (e.g. FAO, 2014; Mougeot, 2006; UN Habitat, 2014). As such, UA must be understood as one of planning’s current “models-in-circulation” (Roy and Ong, 2011), characterised by the traveling of ideas and policies in a globalised world (Healey, 2013). UA operates at a diversity of scales and engages a variety of actors. Yet, as a model-in-circulation, only some of the ways in which UA is practiced are promoted globally and influence the way UA is perceived, thus disregarding UA’s highly specific manifestations in different social/economic/political contexts around the world. We use a critical transnational perspective for a qualitative analysis of collective (rather than individual) UA practices happening in small-scale, left-over public spaces in three very different locations in Latin America and Europe (Bogotá and Medellin in Colombia, and Vienna in Austria) to gain insights into how policies and initiatives inspired by typical models-in-circulation affect the situation on ground. The analysis shows that the reliance on such models can act like a filter impeding the acknowledgment that actors, objectives and barriers for UA practices are more complex, nuanced and multifaceted than those that a simple model can contain. As a result the benefits UA can yield are only partially attained. The conceptual device of translocal is subsequently formulated as one conveying the traveling of ideas locally, which can enrich and root models-in-circulation.
Urban green spaces make a significant contribution to the social and ecological environment in cities, and the decisions of green space managers have direct impacts at both local and city scales. However most studies have focussed on public green spaces, despite privately managed gardens collectively forming a large proportion of urban green. The aim of this qualitative paper is to understand why people become involved in gardening and why they choose environmentally friendly gardening practices. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 gardeners in Lausanne, Switzerland and analysed them according to their content. Three major themes emerged as motivations for gardening: wellbeing, social aspects, and outputs (both tangible, such as food, and intangible, such as the feeling of having produced food). Motivations for gardening practices were grouped into extrinsic factors, such as practical constraints, inspiration from neighbours, following regulations, and social controls; and intrinsic, which were primarily based on knowledge and experience. Our results provide some evidence of the tangible and beneficial outcomes of gardening and provide additional support to urban decision makers with an interest in the management of urban green spaces.
Urbanization and achieving sustainable agriculture are both major societal challenges. By reducing food miles and connecting people with nature, food cultivation in cities has several major advantages. However, due to further urban development (peri-) urban agriculture (UPA) is under threat. To strengthen UPA, we argue for considering UPA as a nature-based solution (NbS) supporting systemic approaches for societal challenges. However, academic knowledge on UPA’s contribution to various societal challenges of urbanization is still fragmented. This study addresses the gap by conducting a systemic literature review, incorporating 166 academic articles focusing on the global north. The results of the review show that UPA contributes to ten key societal challenges of urbanization: climate change, food security, biodiversity and ecosystem services, agricultural intensification, resource efficiency, urban renewal and regeneration, land management, public health, social cohesion, and economic growth. The value of UPA is its multifunctionality in providing social, economic and environmental co-benefits and ecosystem services. When implementing UPA, social, institutional, economic, technical, geographical, and ecological drivers and constraints need to be considered. To upscale UPA successfully, the study develops an integrative assessment framework for evaluating the implementation and impact efficiency of UPA. This framework should be tested based on the example of edible cities
This Article examines the emergence of food access as a policy issue, current approaches to increasing food access, and possible alternatives. Part I discusses the development of the current food access narrative, focusing on its appeal to policymakers, urban planners, and public health officials. Part II describes policies to increase access to food retail. Part III reviews research on the relationship between food retail and health outcomes. Part IV examines why increasing food access persists as a policy goal despite its demonstrated failure to reduce health inequities. Finally, Part V proposes alternative strategies for reducing economic and health disparities within food systems.
The world has experienced rapid urbanization over the past five decades, with resulting substantial changes to the food system. Strong urbanization is associated with economic growth, which allows for investment in substantial increases in energy, water, and land used in intensive agriculture required to support urban populations. Given the cost of moving goods from distant regions, there has been a growth of small-scale agriculture within urban areas to meet the needs of its population. In this paper, we will describe satellite remote sensing data and methods that can identify urban and peri-urban farms and gardens in the United States and in developing countries, starting with global approaches and then providing case studies that explore different techniques. An examination of the increasing importance of local food to urban populations, and the role remote sensing can play in identifying where urban farming is occurring and its change through time will conclude the article.
Community gardening is one of myriad ways in which humans and nature interact. A primary objective of the study was to ascertain the impact of the Community Greening program on new participants. Of specific interest was the inherent need to better articulate both the self-perceived and observed benefits in terms of physical, social, emotional and social health. Based on this premise, we conducted a mixed-method study, which utilised qualitative and quantitative methods to gain deeper insight into the diverse experiences of participation in Community Greening. Through these dual lenses, the research captured the gardeners’ self-reported impact on wellbeing, social engagement, and educational outcomes. These findings were then triangulated alongside data obtained from the garden site staff who were administered an open-ended questionnaire at the conclusion of the study
How and why is urban agriculture taken up into local food policies and sustainability plans? This paper uses a case study of urban agriculture policymaking in New York City from 2007 to 2011 to examine the power-laden operation of urban environmental governance. It explores several ‘faces of power,’ including overt authority, institutionalized ‘rules of the game,’ and hegemony. It also investigates how multiple actors interact in policymaking processes, including through the construction and use of broad discursive concepts. Findings draw upon analysis of policy documents and semi-structured interviews with 43 subjects engaged in food systems policymaking. Some municipal decision-makers questioned the significance of urban agriculture, due to the challenges of quantifying its benefits and the relative scarcity of open space in the developed city. Yet, these challenges proved insufficient to prevent a coalition of civic activists working in collaboration with public officials to envision plans on food policy that included urban agriculture. Actors created the ‘local/regional food system’ as a narrative concept in order to build broad coalitions and gain entry to the municipal policy sphere. Tracing the roll-out of plans reveals the way in which both the food systems concept and specific policy proposals were repeated and legitimized. Unpacking the dynamics of this iterative policymaking contributes to an understanding of how urban environmental governance happens in this case.
Urban agriculture appears to be a means to combat the environmental pressure of increasing urbanization and food demand. However, there is hitherto limited knowledge of the efficiency and scaling up of practices of urban farming. Here, we review the claims on urban agriculture’s comparative performance relative to conventional food production. Our main findings are as follows: (1) benefits, such as reduced embodied greenhouse gases, urban heat island reduction, and storm water mitigation, have strong support in current literature. (2) Other benefits such as food waste minimization and ecological footprint reduction require further exploration. (3) Urban agriculture benefits to both food supply chains and urban ecosystems vary considerably with system type. To facilitate the comparison of urban agriculture systems we propose a classification based on (1) conditioning of the growing space and (2) the level of integration with buildings. Lastly, we compare the predicted environmental performance of the four main types of urban agriculture that arise through the application of the taxonomy. The findings show how taxonomy can aid future research on the intersection of urban food production and the larger material and energy regimes of cities (the “urban metabolism”).
Depuis plusieurs années, la question du système alimentaire prend de l'ampleur à Montréal. De nombreuses initiatives en agriculture urbaine (AU) prennent racine dans la métropole par une réappropriation citoyenne de l'espace public. Elles prennent la forme de jardins communautaires et collectifs, ou bien pour innover vers d'autres formes de production alimentaire en milieu urbain (toits verts, jardins à partager, etc.), mais sans toutefois réussir à se pérenniser dans l'espace et le temps. Dans ce contexte, ce mémoire analyse la dimension géopolitique de la production alimentaire présente sur le territoire montréalais. Il aspire à mettre en lumière les raisons, les acteurs et les effets sur la ville de Montréal, spécifiquement sur l'arrondissement du Plateau-Mont-Royal, et d'analyser les interactions externes et internes entre les différents acteurs de l'AU, ainsi que les représentations et dynamiques territoriales qui les accompagnent et les soutiennent. Elle vise donc à mettre en évidence les interactions des acteurs locaux, régionaux et nationaux pour voir dans quelle mesure la question de l'AU est un objet de tensions entre les acteurs par l'interprétation de leurs représentations sociales et territoriales. L'originalité de ce travail réside dans le fait qu'il constitue la première tentative à l'étude d'une géopolitique locale de l'AU. Ce mémoire s'attache à démontrer la pertinence géographique dans son cadre d'analyse et méthodologique. L'analyse fait preuve ici de sa capacité à être opérationnalisé dans une recherche priorisant la méthode géopolitique. Les résultats obtenus permettent d'élargir les connaissances sur la question des potentialités, des acteurs et des représentations de l'AU sur le territoire montréalais et d'ouvrir de nouvelles perspectives sur la matière. La viabilité de l'AU est fonction de la prise en compte des spécificités du territoire, des politiques municipales, des représentations socio-territoriales des différents acteurs, des potentialités et des interactions entre les fonctions économiques, sociales et environnementales d'un territoire urbain. Malgré une forte volonté citoyenne pour l'implantation de projets en AU sur le territoire montréalais, leur viabilité en est toutefois diminuée sans un soutien politique, par l'intermédiaire de politiques municipales, de programmes de subvention à court et long terme, et d'une accessibilité à des espaces cultivables peu dispendieux. Avec l'appui du politique, les projets en AU augmentent leur probabilité à être pérenniser dans l'espace et le temps
Urban parcels can potentially be leveraged for developing a local urban food system by growing high yield food crops. Here, a remote sensing and GIS-based modeling framework was developed to locate and quantify available area for urban farming, including both rooftop and ground level areas in the city of Boston, MA, USA. Geoprocessing and spatial analysis tools were used to process geographic data layers for zoning, ownership, slope, soil quality, and adequate light availability. Surface slope (roof pitch) was determined for all buildings in the city through the creation of a digital surface map from remotely sensed LiDAR data. Potential parcels from ground level public and private vacant lots and underutilized residential and commercial areas were mapped using publicly available datasets. Approximately 922 ha of rooftop and 1,250 ha of ground level parcels have been identified, representing 7.4% and 10% of the total land area in Boston, respectively. Finally, food yield values for common urban agricultural crops were used to estimate the city’s food production potential from the identified parcels. Despite Boston’s density, the mapped areas have potential to produce enough fresh fruits and vegetables for Boston’s population, while providing both environmental and economic co-benefits. The study outcome was compared with mapping and inventory results from other North American cities.
The number of gardening-based mental health interventions is increasing, yet when the literature was last reviewed in 2003, limited evidence of their effectiveness was identified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the current evidence-base for gardening-based mental health interventions and projects through examining their reported benefits and the quality of research in this field.
Demand for urban allotment plots has recently increased in Portugal but little is known about the characteristics and motivations of the demanding population, and if and how its characteristics affect its motivations. In this article, we use the Municipal Network of Urban Allotment Gardens (MNUAG)1 launched by the Portuguese municipality of Vila Nova de Gaia for an exploratory Case Study research. Based on the data collected in the MNUAG application forms submitted in the period 2012–2013, we describe the characteristics and the motivations of the population demanding for urban allotment gardens (UAG)2 and run a logit model to find if and how the motivations are influenced by the characteristics. The population of applicants to the MNUAG is quite diverse. It has a balanced gender distribution and an average age of 47 years. Most of the applicants are between 25 and 64 years old, and belong to households with 2–4 members. To supplement family budget, occupation of leisure times, and access to organic farming are its most important motivations, followed by environmental concerns, the practice of physical exercise, and education. Motivations are influenced by the characteristics. This study has identified two groups of applicants with contrasting motivations. Food security is the only significant motivation for the unemployed and low-income applicants. Food safety, health concerns, environmental concerns, recreation, and education are common and frequent motivations among the upper and intermediate professional groups. Results can have future implications on the MNUAG, namely on the UAG location and typology, plot number, and plot size. To meet the demand of all the types of applicants, while fostering social cohesion, the municipality should reinforce its current small UAG structure and add to the MNUAG one or two productive parks.