Urban parcels can potentially be leveraged for developing a local urban food system by growing high yield food crops. Here, a remote sensing and GIS-based modeling framework was developed to locate and quantify available area for urban farming, including both rooftop and ground level areas in the city of Boston, MA, USA. Geoprocessing and spatial analysis tools were used to process geographic data layers for zoning, ownership, slope, soil quality, and adequate light availability. Surface slope (roof pitch) was determined for all buildings in the city through the creation of a digital surface map from remotely sensed LiDAR data. Potential parcels from ground level public and private vacant lots and underutilized residential and commercial areas were mapped using publicly available datasets. Approximately 922 ha of rooftop and 1,250 ha of ground level parcels have been identified, representing 7.4% and 10% of the total land area in Boston, respectively. Finally, food yield values for common urban agricultural crops were used to estimate the city’s food production potential from the identified parcels. Despite Boston’s density, the mapped areas have potential to produce enough fresh fruits and vegetables for Boston’s population, while providing both environmental and economic co-benefits. The study outcome was compared with mapping and inventory results from other North American cities.
The number of gardening-based mental health interventions is increasing, yet when the literature was last reviewed in 2003, limited evidence of their effectiveness was identified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the current evidence-base for gardening-based mental health interventions and projects through examining their reported benefits and the quality of research in this field.
Demand for urban allotment plots has recently increased in Portugal but little is known about the characteristics and motivations of the demanding population, and if and how its characteristics affect its motivations. In this article, we use the Municipal Network of Urban Allotment Gardens (MNUAG)1 launched by the Portuguese municipality of Vila Nova de Gaia for an exploratory Case Study research. Based on the data collected in the MNUAG application forms submitted in the period 2012–2013, we describe the characteristics and the motivations of the population demanding for urban allotment gardens (UAG)2 and run a logit model to find if and how the motivations are influenced by the characteristics. The population of applicants to the MNUAG is quite diverse. It has a balanced gender distribution and an average age of 47 years. Most of the applicants are between 25 and 64 years old, and belong to households with 2–4 members. To supplement family budget, occupation of leisure times, and access to organic farming are its most important motivations, followed by environmental concerns, the practice of physical exercise, and education. Motivations are influenced by the characteristics. This study has identified two groups of applicants with contrasting motivations. Food security is the only significant motivation for the unemployed and low-income applicants. Food safety, health concerns, environmental concerns, recreation, and education are common and frequent motivations among the upper and intermediate professional groups. Results can have future implications on the MNUAG, namely on the UAG location and typology, plot number, and plot size. To meet the demand of all the types of applicants, while fostering social cohesion, the municipality should reinforce its current small UAG structure and add to the MNUAG one or two productive parks.
L'agriculture urbaine est devenue en moins de vingt ans un sujet d'actualité politique et scientifique. La dimension multifonctionnelle de cette agriculture (souveraineté alimentaire urbaine, contribution au lien social, fourniture de services écosystémiques) est, plus qu'ailleurs, essentielle. Les modèles agricoles orthodoxes s'incorporent imparfaitement à ce cadre et, surtout, prennent difficilement place dans des espaces où la contrainte foncière est très forte. Les solutions à mettre en oeuvre sont donc à chercher en dehors de cette orthodoxie. La permaculture, cadre d'action de fermes déjà existantes, représente une alternative innovante et prometteuse, mais les systèmes et les pratiques qui s'y inscrivent demeurent très mal connus. Ce projet s'intéresse à ces systèmes, en s'appuyant sur une approche de modélisation qui permette de dépasser l'obstacle du faible nombre de situations observables. Il sera conduit en collaboration directe avec les agriculteurs innovateurs, dans une posture revendiquée de recherche-action. L'ambition est de construire un modèle conceptuel formalisé mathématiquement, dont l'exploration aboutisse à un ensemble de « métarègles » pour la définition et la conduite des systèmes maraichers éco-intensifs appropriés au contexte urbain, permettant aussi bien à des scientifiques qu'aux acteurs de terrain de répondre à la question « comment concevoir des règles dans le contexte donné » plutôt qu'à la question « quelles règles appliquer ». Abtract Urban agriculture became in less than twenty years a political and scientific current topic. The multifunctional dimension of this agriculture (urban food sovereignty, contribution to the social link, supply of ecosystem services) is, more than elsewhere, essential. The orthodox agricultural models fit imperfectly this framework and are hardly applied in spaces where the land constraint is very strong. The solutions to be implemented are thus to seek apart from this orthodoxy. Permaculture is the action frame of already existing farms, represents an innovative and promising alternative, but their systems and practices remain badly known. This PhD project is focused on such systems, by leaning on a modeling approach of their ecological and economic viability which allows overtaking the obstacle of the low number of observable situations. It will be led in direct collaboration with innovating farmers, in an asserted posture of research -action. The ambition is to build a mathematically formalized conceptual model, whose exploration leads to a set of meta-rules for the definition and the management of market-gardening systems appropriate to an urban context, allowing as well scientists as practitioners and policy-makers to answer the question "how to design rules in a given context" rather than in the question "what rules are to be applied.
Community-based efforts are essential to address urban social–ecological challenges. Here, we focus on French community gardens. Through participant observation and semistructured interviews, this study seeks to provide empirical evidence on: (1) what motivates volunteer gardeners in French community gardens to undertake this activity, (2) what practices take place in the gardens, and (3) which individual and collective processes are associated with gardeners' experiences in the gardens. Through these questions, we aim to understand how these initiatives relate to environmental stewardship. Our results show that environmental, social, and self-motivations are the drivers behind gardeners' participation in the gardens. It seems that involvement in the gardens provides opportunities to fulfill those needs and/or motives through different interrelated processes between the individual with him/herself, the human collective, and nature such as: contemplating nature and benefiting from sensory experiences, having access to environmental education, experiencing individual and collective organization, renewing social–ecological relationships, and facing local challenges. We note that French community gardens provide arenas for new experiences of nature. In addition, even if gardens’ biophysical features and gardening practices allow a series of processes that provide social and ecological benefits and outcomes, these gardens refer to environmental stewardship practices by cultivating relational values. These values provide opportunities for innovative ways of creative conservation, reflecting how care for ourselves extends to care for others, for places, and for nature.
School gardens have beneficial effects on children's dietary behaviors but information on its implementation is scarce. The current study aimed to gain insight in implementation practices of school gardens and in perceptions of key members and children towards a school garden. We conducted twelve interviews involving 14 key members and five focus groups with 38 children from fifth to sixth grade (10-13 years old) in four primary schools in Ghent (Flanders, Belgium). We analyzed the interviews and focus groups in NVivo, using thematic analysis. School gardens were mainly initiated to involve children in nature, not to improve vegetable consumption. Participants were positive about having a school garden, experienced facilitating factors (e.g., adaptability of the garden, having a person responsible for the garden), but also various barriers (e.g., difficulties with startup, maintenance during summer holidays and integration in the school curriculum) and suggested some solutions (e.g., involving external organizations and parents, expanding the garden) and motivating factors for children (e.g., colorful plants, use of gloves). In order to improve implementation and to contribute to children's health, future school gardening projects should take the recommendations of key members and children into account.
Urban farming, especially on rooftops, is a popular and growing topic in both the media and the scientific literature, providing a genuine opportunity to meet some of the challenges linked to urban development worldwide. However, relatively little attention has been paid to date to the growing medium of green roofs, i.e., Technosols. A better understanding of the influence of Technosols and the link with ecosystem services is required in order to maximize the environmental benefits of urban rooftop farming. Between March 2013 and March 2015, a pilot project called T4P (Parisian Productive rooftoP, Pilot Experiment) was conducted on the rooftop of AgroParisTech University. Urban organic waste was used, and results were compared with those obtained using a commercial potting soil, based on yield and trace metal concentrations, substrate characterization, and the amount of leaching. An assessment of the ecosystem services expected from the Technosols was undertaken in terms of the output of food (food production and quality), regulation of water runoff (quantity and quality), and the recycling of organic waste. Indicators of these ecosystem services (e.g., yield, annual loss of mass of mineral nitrogen) were identified, measured, and compared with reference cases (asphalt roof, green roof, and cropland). Measured yields were almost equivalent to those obtained from horticultural sources in the same area, and the Technosols also retained 74–84% of the incoming rainfall water. This is the first quantitative analysis of ecosystem services delivered by urban garden rooftops developed on organic wastes, and demonstrates their multifunctional character, as well as allowing the identification of trade-offs. An ecosystem services approach is proposed for the design of soil-based green infrastructure of this kind and more generally for the design of sustainable urban agriculture.
Cet ouvrage cherche à donner des outils de compréhension et d’action aux professionnels publics et privés (collectivités locales, entreprises, aménageurs, urbanistes, paysagistes, agriculteurs,…). sollicités sur ce sujet dans leurs métiers, il s’agit pour eux de partager une approche et un vocabulaire communs. À cette fin, le guide est organisé en trois grands chapitres : « Comprendre l’histoire » dresse le portrait de l’agriculture des aires urbaines en France, en présentant l’historique récent des relations entre la ville et l’agriculture, ainsi que la diversité des initiatives et les enjeux actuels. « Agir dans le Cadre des projets urbains » présente les facteurs clés à prendre en compte pour intégrer différentes formes d’agriculture urbaine dans l’espace et le temps urbains, avec les leviers d’action associés. « Agir dans le Cadre des politiques publiques » s’intéresse à la construction d’une stratégie agricole et alimentaire cohérente des collectivités urbaines, en décrivant notamment une démarche et en approfondissant des thématiques à mobiliser.
Urban gardening (UG) as a component of urban agriculture (UA) has reached popularity during the last decades. This growing interest depends on several factors including the different functions that have been attributed to UG over the years, operating from the economic to the social, health and cultural levels. While multifunctionality of UG is well documented, only a few studies investigated individual gardeners' motivations, which can be subjective and heavily affected by the local context in which it takes place. The paper aims to detect some peculiar features of Milan city gardeners, in order to highlight the motivations of their activity through an innovative and replicable approach based on multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The analysis has been applied to the Milan case study, in the North of Italy; the results suggest a great importance of the social component of UG, and trace some different gardeners' profiles.
Food production is of symbolic and practical importance in sustainable cities. Vegetable gardening in public spaces and community gardens is better understood than the same activity on private residential property. In suburbanised western cities most vegetable production is likely to be on private blocks. To increase vegetable production in cities, we need to understand private vegetable growing. We used a questionnaire administered in person with a diverse sample of 101 gardeners in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia to determine variation in gardens, gardening practices and gardener motivations, relationships between them, and potential for planning and other interventions to increase domestic vegetable production. Vegetable gardens varied from highly species-rich to species-poor and from staple production to expressions of culinary fashion. Gardening practices varied from integrated, organic and displayed, to strongly constructed and reliant on synthetic inputs. While all respondents were motivated to grow vegetables for pleasure, many were activists who wished to promote social change, while others wished to ensure affordable access to vegetables or to improve health. Activist gardeners used integrated organic or permacultural practices and produced highly complex garden outcomes. With the exceptions of the activists and food fashionistas, garden type, gardening practice and gardener motivation were not strongly interlinked. A large majority of respondents identified family members as important sources of information and inspiration. Gardeners without family role models were either influenced by new food cultures or were on low-incomes and wanted affordable access to vegetables. This latter group could be expanded through appropriate education and incentives.
Although always a part of city life, urban agriculture has recently attracted increased attention from diverse groups in the United States, which promote it as a strategy for stimulating economic development, increasing food security and access, and combatting obesity and diabetes, among other goals. Developing effective policies and programs at the city or neighborhood level demands as a first step the accurate mapping of existing urban agriculture sites. Mapping efforts in major U.S. cities have been limited in their focus and methodology. Focusing on public sites of food production, such as community gardens, they have overlooked the actual and potential contribution of private spaces, including home food gardens, to local food systems. This paper describes a case study of urban agriculture in Chicago which used the manual analysis of high-resolution aerial images in Google Earth in conjunction with ArcGIS to identify and map public and private spaces of food production. The resulting spatial dataset demonstrates that urban agriculture is an extensive land use type with wide variations in the distribution of sites across the city. Only 13% of sites reported to be community gardening projects by nongovernment organizations and government agencies were determined, through image analysis, to be sites of food production. The production area of home gardens identified by the study is almost threefold that of community gardens. Study results suggest opportunities may exist for scaling up existing production networks—including home food gardens—and enhancing community food sovereignty by leveraging local knowledges of urban agriculture.
This thesis deals with an analysis of different Urban Agriculture (UA) models of public action. The theoretical model adopted is the cognitive analysis of public action, based on Pierre Muller and Yves Surel, and the actor-network theory by Bruno Latour. The purpose of the thesis is to understand the relationship dynamics between ideas, organizations, networks of action and results in the field of UA public action. The results are understood as basic services for Urban Agriculture, that were defined according to the literature analysis in this field, and it can be offered by state and/or civil society organizations. Based on the literature review of 21 different cities, four different types of public action were identified.
Urban agriculture (UA), for many activists and scholars, plays a prominent role in food justice struggles in cities throughout the Global North, a site of conflict between use and exchange values and rallying point for progressive claims to the right to the city. Recent critiques, however, warn of its contribution to gentrification and displacement. With the use–exchange value binary no longer as useful an analytic as it once was, geographers need to better understand UA's contradictory relations to capital, particularly in the neoliberal sustainable city. To this end, I bring together feminist theorizations of social reproduction, Bourdieu's “species of capital” and critical geographies of race to help demystify UA's entanglement in processes of ecogentrification. In this primarily theoretical contribution, I argue that concrete labor embedded in household-scale UA—a socially reproductive practice—becomes cultural capital that a sustainable city's growth coalition in turn valorizes as symbolic sustainability capital used to extract rent and burnish the city's brand at larger scales. The valorization of UA occurs, by necessity, in a variegated manner; spatial agglomerations of UA and the ecohabitus required for its misrecognition as sustainability capital arise as a function of the interplay between rent gaps and racialized othering. I assert that ecogentrification is not only a contradiction emerging from an urban sustainability fix but is central to how racial capitalism functions through green urbanization. Like its contribution to ecogentrification, I conclude, UA's emancipatory potential is also spatially variegated.
Urban migrant women worldwide utilize a creative combination of food insecurity coping strategies to procure food for themselves and their families. Using in-depth interviews with 72 migrant women in Medellín, Colombia, and Washington, DC, this paper argues that in low-income urban communities these everyday strategies can further their demands for autonomy in determining what foods they produce and consume. Relying on feminist geography and food sovereignty literature, this research explores how migrant women living in poverty rely on informal networks for growing and sharing food, seek out organic, fresh foods, and utilize independent survival strategies to counter exclusionary rhetoric and a food system they view as unhealthy. In doing so, they devise alternative urban imaginaries of a more democratic food system. This research contributes a more nuanced understanding of the food insecurity experiences of urban migrant women.