The City of Fayetteville is located in Northwest Arkansas—the most prosperous region of the state. Yet, Northwest Arkansas has one of the highest rates of child hunger statewide, while Arkansas itself has the highest rate of child hunger nationally with nearly
This paper considers the limits and potential of ‘urban metabolism’ to conceptualize city processes. Three ‘ecologies’ of urban metabolism have emerged. Each privileges a particular dimension of urban space, shaped by epistemology, politics, and model-making. Marxist ecologies theorize it as hybridized socio-natures that (re)produce uneven outcomes; industrial ecology, as stocks and flows of materials and energy; and urban ecology, as complex socio-ecological systems. We map these scholarly islands through bibliometric analysis and literature review (1965-2012), unveiling how the metaphor has become stagnant. To reinvigorate this research we propose the development of political–industrial ecology, using urban metabolism as a boundary metaphor.
Local food systems may facilitate agroecological practices that conserve nutrient, energy, and water resources. However, little is known about the potential for local food systems to scale beyond niche markets and meet a substantial fraction of total food demand. Here we estimate the upper potential for all existing US croplands to meet total US food demand through local food networks. Our spatially explicit approach simulates the years 1850 through 2000 and accounts for a wide range of diets, food waste, population distributions, cropland areas, and crop yields. Although we find that local food potential has declined over time, particularly in some coastal cities, our results also demonstrate an unexpectedly large current potential for meeting as much as 90% of the national food demand. This decline in potential is associated with demographic and agronomic trends, resulting in extreme pressures on agroecological systems that, if left unchecked, could severely undermine recent national policies focused on food localization. Nevertheless, these results provide a spatially explicit foundation for exploring the many dimensions of agroecosystem sustainability.
The popularity of local foods has increased significantly in the last few decades, pushed along in recent years by a heightened interest of consumers in buying local and sustainably-grown foods. From 1997 to 2007 direct-to-consumer food marketing grew by 104.7 percent while total agricultural sales increased by only 47.6 percent. (Diamond and Soto, 2009). According to a recent report of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 163,675 farmers sold an estimated $6.1 billion in locally marketed foods in 2012. In 2014, there were 8,628 farmers markets operating across the nation, which represents a 180 percent growth in the number of markets since 2006 (Low et al, 2015).
Le portail des initiatives montréalaise en agriculture urbaine est maintenant en ligne. Les mordus d’agriculture et les jardiniers en herbe peuvent désormais découvrir les potagers et les fermes de l’île de Montréal. Le lancement de la vitrine a eu lieu le 12 avril en présence d'une centaine d'acteurs de l'agriculture à Montréal. Pour faire partie du mouvement, inscrivez votre jardin ! Qu'il soit dans votre cour, sur votre balcon ou sur votre toit. La vitrine interactive est un outil de promotion pour l’agriculture urbaine montréalaise, qui est en plein essor. Elle présente une cartographie des jardins communautaires et collectifs, où les citoyens, les entreprises et les organismes sont invités à inscrire leur potager, à offrir ou partager des espaces, des outils et des trucs de jardinage, voire même leurs récoltes. À Montréal, ce sont des dizaines de milliers de jardiniers urbains qui, chaque printemps, planifient leurs prochaines récoltes. Le portail est une initiative du Collectif de recherche en aménagement paysager et agriculture urbaine durable (CRAPAUD), en partenariat avec l’Institut des sciences de l’environnement de l’UQAM, la Conférence régionale des élus (CRÉ) de Montréal et la Direction de santé publique de Montréal.
As people increasingly migrate to urban settings and more than half of the world's population now lives in cities, it is vital to plan and provide for sustainable and resilient food systems which reflect this challenge. This volume presents experience and evidence-based "state of the art" chapters on the key dimensions of urban food challenges and types of intra- and peri-urban agriculture. The book provides urban planners, local policy makers and urban development practitioners with an overview of crucial aspects of urban food systems based on an up to date review of research results and practical experiences in both developed and developing countries. By doing so, the international team of authors provides a balanced textbook for students of the growing number of courses on sustainable agriculture, food and urban studies, as well as a solid basis for well-informed policy making, planning and implementation regarding the development of sustainable, resilient and just urban food systems.
The book results from research carried out by the authors since 1999 on urban gardening collectives in Russia, then from the extension of this research towards collective urban gardening in France, with some investigations in other European Union Member States and Brazil.
Plant biodiversity is often correlated with ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems. However, we know little about the relative and combined effects of above- and belowground biodiversity on multiple ecosystem functions (for example, ecosystem multifunctionality, EMF) or how climate might mediate those relationships. Here we tease apart the effects of biotic and abiotic factors, both above- and belowground, on EMF on the Tibetan Plateau, China. We found that a suite of biotic and abiotic variables account for up to 86% of the variation in EMF, with the combined effects of above- and belowground biodiversity accounting for 45% of the variation in EMF. Our results have two important implications: first, including belowground biodiversity in models can improve the ability to explain and predict EMF. Second, regional-scale variation in climate, and perhaps climate change, can determine, or at least modify, the effects of biodiversity on EMF in natural ecosystems.
This site helps to document a joint field course offered at Portland State University (PSU) and l'Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) in August-September, 2015. Students enrolled in the course come from graduate programs in Urban Studies, Planning, Geography, Sociology, and Environmental Sciences at three universities: PSU, UQAM, and the Université de Montréal (UdM).
This article studies urban gardening as a form of social resilience. It analyses its role and impact on society in a context of social and financial crisis through the lens of the debate about the commons on the basis of three case studies conducted in Brussels in 2013. The study connects the specificities of the current social and economic context with the new wave of urban gardening from a people-centred perspective.
Urban gardens have been observed to multiply in response to crises. However, the meaning and motivations behind the emergence of gardening movements varies greatly over space and time. In this paper authors argue that bottom up urban gardening initiatives taking place in Southern European countries in form of land occupation and communalization represent forms of resistance that enhance social cohesion and collective action in times of need.
Food systems work is both a stimulus to the growth of the food movement and a response to the concerns of the activists who lead and participate in that movement. In the United States and many other nations, the development of a vocal, articulate, and passionate group of people who are critical of food systems work has led to many changes. However, the food movement lacks diversity representative of the communities in which food systems work takes place. People of color, the poor, and many ethnic and religious minorities remain almost invisible in the food movement. A diversity model approach to food systems work would suggest that the food movement should include people of diverse backgrounds and characteristics, reflect the needs and interests of a diverse society, and respect everyone’s food choices and values in determining solutions and creating alternatives to the current food system. Instead, the food movement most often reflects white, middle class interests, and ignores or even rejects the interests and cultural histories of diverse populations when establishing what constitutes “good food.” We call for an empowerment model that instead embraces diversity and respects the variability in food choices and values within our society. We argue this model will liberate both the underrepresented and underserved and the elite and that the result will be more equitable and lasting solutions to complex social problems in the food system.
Multipliant les exemples révélateurs et les interventions d’experts - architectes, économistes, sociologues, entrepreneurs, ingénieurs informatiques, etc. -, cette série documentaire en trois volets offre une immersion passionnante dans l’avenir des villes. De l’Amérique du Nord à l’Asie en passant par l’Europe, ce tour d’horizon des innovations urbaines fantasmées ou en marche s’accompagne d’une réflexion philosophique et politique saisissante sur nos vies citadines, d’ores et déjà placées sous le règne de l’algorithme. Les nouvelles villes, qui se distinguent par leur gestion des plus efficientes, trouveront-elles leur identité ? Faut-il renoncer à la liberté pour assurer la sécurité ? L’informatique favorisera-t-elle les interactions entre les individus ou annonce-t-elle l’avènement d’un pouvoir ultracentralisé ? Des questions fondamentales auxquelles seuls les citoyens, qui expérimentent ces transformations, et à qui le documentaire donne la parole, peuvent répondre.
This short report reflects upon a Short-Term Scientific Mission (STSM) conducted as part of the COST action T U1201 “Urban Allotment Gardens in European Cities - Future, Challenges and Lessons Learned” at the University Pablo de Olavide in Sevilla, Spain, between April 7 and June 3, 2015.
In 2012, a pilot experiment was run in Paris (France). Simple and cheap systems of rooftop gardening were tested on a rooftop using as crop substrates only local urban organic waste so as to contribute to the urban metabolism. Production levels and heavy metal contents in cropping substrates and edible vegetables were measured. Available results show (i) high levels of crop production with limited inputs compared to land professional gardening, (ii) low levels of heavy metal pollutants in the edible parts of the crops, especially for Cd and Pb with respect to EU norms for vegetables and (iii) positive inflence on yields on organizing the substrate in layers and enhancing the biological activity through earthworm inoculation.